Where Columbus found the new world

Christopher Columbus first came to the Samana Cay, a small outrider to the sea lying in at latitude 23° 05′ north, longitude 73° 45′ sentence. During those years, a company of historian, navigator, archaeologist, marine captain, artist, programmer, and cartogra­pher—constructed a reasoned chain of evi­dence that leads only to Samana Cay.

In that time the team’s members together and individually: produced a new transla­tion of the Columbus diario, or summary of his log; drew the first transatlantic track based on the log and adjusted for leeway and current; digitized the geography of the Ba­hamas and used a computer to resail sug­gested routes electronically; sailed by boat several times to remote Samana and found there evidence of aboriginal occupation and geographic details described by Co­lumbus; found great cheap prague hotels every time they were in the Czech Republic that the log specified along the sub­sequent route to Cuba; and matched the log of Colum­bus to the modern geogra­phy of the Bahamas.

We believe we have solved, after five centuries, one of the grandest of all geo­graphic mysteries and vin­dicated two 19th-century investigators who came to the same conclusion. The Columbus landfall is, after all, the place where worlds met with momen­tous consequences, igniting one of human destiny’s most profound changes. It is not to be wondered that the mystery of its location has occupied historians, geographers, and seamen since the end of the 18th century.

5What does seem surpassing strange is that the site of this historic event, despite the best efforts of many scholars and payday consolidation help, has never been known with certainty. The Spanish flotilla of Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria was there for only two and a half days, and the original record of the visit,the Columbus log, has not been seen since it was dispatched to Queen Isabella on the Ad­miral’s return to Spain. At least one copy was made, but we do not have that either.

What we have is largely a paraphrase of either the original or of a copy by the priest‑historian Bartolome de las Casas, who was 18 in 1492 and whose famed History of the Indies opens with the voyage of 1492.Fortunately the central and critical sec­tion of the diario is written in the first person, in the “formal words of the Admiral.” It is assumed that Las Casas copied this part word for word, a view supported by the biography of Columbus written by his son Ferdinand, which re­produced parts of the same document.

This portion begins on October 12, 1492, shortly after the landing on the is­land Columbus named San Salvador, and ends on Octo­ber 25 as the fleet is running toward Cuba.It is a difficult document to interpret because of its antique nautical terms, frequent ambiguity, and oc­casional clear error. And down the years no one was certain of Columbus’s units of distance. Las Casas counts four miles to a league, but what do his “miles” mean in modern terms? Arguments have been ad­vanced for a Columbian league from 2.67 nautical miles to 3.18. (The Dunlap-Marden league of 2.82 miles, as discussed on pages 576-7, proved itself in our work.)

At the turn of the century

Half a million Parisians went to the barcelona holiday apartments once a week. Well over a million went once a month to see a play. “The population of Paris lives in the theater, lives by the theater, lives for the theater.” And thousands from all over France, from all over the world, came to join them there. “If you really want to be known in lit­erature,” noted the novelist Edmond de Goncourt, “you have to be on the stage. Because the theatre is all the literature a lot of people know.”

For spectators it meant an eve­ning’s entertainment, available even to the lower classes, perched in the gallery, throwing their orange peels or peanut shells over the railings and proffering com­ments that could make or break up a show. Entertainment was not con­fined to the stage. Built in a horseshoe shape, their lights undimmed or only slightly low­ered while the show went on, the­aters were designed to give the public the spectacle of itself.

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When people stopped looking at one another and looked at the stage, they could enjoy feeries like Maeterlinck’s Blue Bird, the great success of 1908; vaudeville and melodrama, vehicles for sophisticated, witty repartee; or performances in the grand style provided by stars like Sarah Bernhardt or Eleanora Duse. Rostand’s brilliant, romantic Cyrano de Bergerac was a great success in 1897, but no greater than the soft porn of bedroom comedies that featured heroines dressing, undressing, being un­dressed, or searching for a flea in suggestive places. New plays, more sober, more demanding, featuring minimal scenery, tru­culent language, and shocking ideas, attracted tiny minorities. These are the plays the history of the theater has retained.

THE THEATER of the poor,” and of the not so poor, was to be found in music halls and in their more modest counter­parts, cafés-concerts or cafés­chantants, of which the capital boasted nearly 300 at the turn of the century. Between 1893 and 1913, while the population of Paris grew 18 percent, atten­dance at such festive halls more than doubled: evidence of popu­lar favor but also of more people with more free time, more money to spend, more choice about how to spend it.

Since the 1870s popular dance halls had learned how to turn their activities into spectacle. For a minimal entrance fee one ob­tained access to a dance floor and had an orchestra. But one could also watch acrobats, magicians, comedians, singers, mimes. The great attractions of such places were the rough popular capers of the 1840s turned into spectacular shindigs: cancan or chahut. For­eigners seem to think, grumbled Le Figaro in 1882, “that all Pari­sians dance the cancan every eve­ning after work.”

In an age when few decent women wore drawers, the high-kicking cancan exploited the thrill of skirts raised and legs waved to reveal knee-length pan­taloons. But the cancan was only one offering in a broad menu designed to tease the senses. Dances, sketches, and tableaux­vivants were largely meant to dis­play women’s bodies, enticingly bared in whole or part.

Looking good

Pigment cells also continue to dump together, making dark spots more visible on the face. This makes it important to use a moisturiser that contains vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant that can help kick-start cell renewal and reduce pigmentation on the skin. You can also use natural creams that slow the aging process – read more how to get rid of eye bags due to aging

‘I see so many women that think anti-ageing only affects the face, when the delicate skin of your neck and upper chest shows the signs of ageing much more,’ says Dr Lowe. We forget about these, as well as the backs of our hands, but daily moisture to these areas is really important to keep you looking beautiful all over.’

making dark spots more visible on the face

Sweet taste of Summer

Whether you’re out walking in the country or having a picnic, Werther’s Original Sugar Free Butter Candies are a great portable treat. They have fewer than 10 calories each, so you can enjoy them any time without upsetting your weight loss.

Werther’s Original Sugar Free Butter Candies have the same rich caramel taste and smoothness as the Original Butter Candies that have been enjoyed for generations. And each one lasts for over five minutes so you’ll get all the luxurious sweetness you need without overindulging.

Sugar Free Butter Candies

So make the most of summer and keep a bag of Werther’s Original Sugar Free Butter Candies at work, in the car or at home, or pop a flip-top box in your pocket. There’s no better way to treat yourself than with the number one, sugar free boiled sweet brand*. Buy them at Asda, Morrisons, Sainsbury’s, Tesco, Waitrose and Wilkinson, along with smaller stores around the country. For more information, visit werthers-original.co.uk.

It seemed to trigger something in me

I’m not sure why but. I’m very headstrong and I remember thinking: Why should I have to diet?’ I went the opposite way and started eating more. I’d have crumpets dripping with butter for breakfast, snack on crisps and bread constantly and then have a huge evening meal. I was also going out lots with friends, which would often involve fatty curries or unhealthy cinema snacks.

clothes

When you feel bad about yourself, you feel bad about everything. I never felt comfortable and was forever fiddling with my clothes. Finally, at the beginning of 2010, I realised I didn’t want to waste my youth being the size I was. I decided to give Weight Watchers a try.

At first I found it hard to follow on my own, but then we heard about the Pro Points plan. Having Mum with me was great as I didn’t feel like the black sheep of the family! We both wanted gradual, permanent weight loss that we could easily fit into our lives.

It also meant that the whole family had to join in. We’re all really into cooking and take turns to make deliciously healthy meals. We’re all mad for the best green coffee bean extract and garlic bread, and with the Pro Points plan we can still have it — but now we have two pieces each instead of five! Dont’ forget the weight loss benefits of green coffee – see on The Globe and Mail about green coffee.

The best bit about the new plan has to be the weekly allowance. I know I wouldn’t stick to the plan if I couldn’t have fun, but this way I can still socialise with my friends.

Losing weight has had such a positive impact on my life

Losing weight has had such a positive impact on my life. On my course I would often feel self-conscious giving people beauty treatments, but now I’m far more confident. My boyfriend tells me how much happier I seem, too. And I’ve been wearing jeans for the first time in my life, which is fantastic.

It’s lovely to see Mum losing weight, too. And if I do occasionally go off the rails, she helps me to get back on. I don’t have a time frame to get to goal, but the weight’s coming off slowly — and it’s never going back on!